Potent Energizer and Brain Antioxidant
Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC), a derivative of the amino acid L-carnitine, is a vitamin-like compound that transports fatty acids (“fuel”) into cells. It has been approved in Europe as a “drug” to treat heart and neurological disease. It also acts as a powerful antioxidant in the brain. The acetyl form of L-carnitine (ALC) was found to be substantially more active than L-carnitine in brain cells.
Carnitine is approved by the FDA for use in muscle wasting diseases, including heart muscle weakness and low energy levels. Acetyl-L-Carnitine works most effectively with CoQ10 and Alpha Lipoic Acid to maintain the energy-producing function of mitochondria. (The energy-producing units of the cell).(15)
Acetyl-L-Carnitine has been the subject of numerous studies. The close structural similarity to acetylcholine (a major brain chemical) led researches to study its use in age-related memory changes. Acetyl-L-Carnitine has been found useful in:
- overweight and obesity – by increasing fatty acid oxidation (fat metabolism) and insulin sensitivity (1-5)
- heart disease: angina, recovery from heart attack (MI), arrhythmias, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) (6-10)
- Alzheimer’s, memory impairment and age-onset depression (11-15)
- peripheral neuropathy- from diabetes, chemotherapy side effects and HIV (retroviral) side effects (16-24)
- diabetes – by helping restore insulin sensitivity (3,27)
- liver disease (25-26)
- anti-aging and longevity protocols – by helping restore normal mitochondrial function and acting as an antioxidant that crosses the blood-brain barrier. (28-30)
In male fertility: “L-Carnitine (LC) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) are highly concentrated in the epididymis and play a crucial role in sperm metabolism and maturation. They are related to sperm motility and have antioxidant properties. A variety of studies support the conclusion that LC and/or ALC at total daily amounts of at least 3 g per day can significantly improve both sperm concentration and total sperm counts among men with astheno- or oligoasthenozoospermia. ” (31,32,33)
Suggested dose: 500 to 2000 mg per day or more in certain cases as determined by your doctor.
Each (one) capsule contains: Acetyl L-Carnitine 500mg
References and Further Reading:
1.) Noland RC, Koves TR, Seiler SE, Lum H, Lust RM, Ilkayeva O, Stevens RD, Hegardt FG, Muoio DM. Carnitine insufficiency caused by aging and overnutrition compromises mitochondrial performance and metabolic control. J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 21;284(34):22840-52. Epub 2009 Jun 24.
2.) Pescosolido N, Imperatrice B, Karavitis P. Ocular disorders secondary to systemic disease and the potential role of carnitines. Drugs R D. 2008;9 Suppl 1:15-22. doi: 10.2165/0126839-200809001-00003.
3.) Power RA, Hulver MW, Zhang JY, Dubois J, Marchand RM, Ilkayeva O, Muoio DM, Mynatt RL.Carnitine revisited: potential use as adjunctive treatment in diabetes. Diabetologia. 2007 Apr;50(4):824-32. Epub 2007 Feb 20.
4.) Siliprandi N, Siliprandi D, Ciman M. Stimulation of oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids and of acetate by acetylcarnitine. Biochem J. 1965 Sep;96(3):777-80.
5.) Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL. New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2007 Jun 1;581(Pt 2):431-44. Epub 2007 Mar 1.
6.) Calvani M, Reda E, Arrigoni-Martelli E. Regulation by carnitine of myocardial fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Basic Res Cardiol. 2000 Apr;95(2):75-83.
7.) Ferrari R, Merli E, Cicchitelli G, Mele D, Fucili A, Ceconi C. Therapeutic effects of L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine on cardiovascular diseases: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Nov;1033:79-91.
8.) Iliceto S, Scrutinio D, Bruzzi P, D’Ambrosio G, Boni L, Di Biase M, Biasco G, Hugenholtz PG, Rizzon P. Effects of L-carnitine administration on left ventricular remodeling after acute anterior myocardial infarction: the L-Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) Trial.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995 Aug;26(2):380-7.
9.) Lango R, Smolenski RT, Narkiewicz M, Suchorzewska J, Lysiak-Szydlowska W. Influence of L-carnitine and its derivatives on myocardial metabolism and function in ischemic heart disease and during cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiovasc Res. 2001 Jul;51(1):21-9.
10.) Siliprandi N, Di Lisa F, Pivetta A, Miotto G, Siliprandi D.Transport and function of L-carnitine and L-propionylcarnitine: relevance to some cardiomyopathies and cardiac ischemia. Z Kardiol. 1987;76 Suppl 5:34-40.
11.) Calabrese V, Cornelius C, Mancuso C, Lentile R, Stella AM, Butterfield DA. Redox homeostasis and cellular stress response in aging and neurodegeneration. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;610:285-308.
12.) Carta A, Calvani M. Acetyl-L-carnitine: a drug able to slow the progress of Alzheimer’s disease? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991;640:228-32.
13.) Carta A, Calvani M, Bravi D, Bhuachalla SN. Acetyl-L-carnitine and Alzheimer’s disease: pharmacological considerations beyond the cholinergic sphere. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Sep 24;695:324-6.
14.) Epis R, Marcello E, Gardoni F, Longhi A, Calvani M, Iannuccelli M, Cattabeni F, Canonico PL, Di Luca M. Modulatory effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on amyloid precursor protein metabolism in hippocampal neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Nov 12;597(1-3):51-6. Epub 2008 Sep 6.
15.) Liu J.The effects and mechanisms of mitochondrial nutrient alpha-lipoic acid on improving age-associated mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction: an overview. Neurochem Res. 2008 Jan;33(1):194-203. Epub 2007 Jun 29.
16.) Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, Ravaglia S, Capri G, Cundari S, Zanna C, Gianni L. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Aug;41(12):1746-50.
17.) Chiechio S, Copani A, Gereau RW 4th, Nicoletti F. Acetyl-L-carnitine in neuropathic pain: experimental data. CNS Drugs. 2007;21 Suppl 1:31-8; discussion 45-6.
18.) De Grandis D. Acetyl-L-carnitine for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a short review. CNS Drugs. 2007;21 Suppl 1:39-43; discussion 45-6.
19.) Ghirardi O, Vertechy M, Vesci L, Canta A, Nicolini G, Galbiati S, Ciogli C, Quattrini G, Pisano C, Cundari S, Rigamonti LM. Chemotherapy-induced allodinia: neuroprotective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine. In Vivo. 2005 May-Jun;19(3):631-7.
20.) Hart AM, Wilson AD, Montovani C, Smith C, Johnson M, Terenghi G, Youle M. Acetyl-l-carnitine: a pathogenesis based treatment for HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. AIDS. 2004 Jul 23;18(11):1549-60.
21.) Herzmann C, Johnson MA, Youle M. ng-term effect of acetyl-L-carnitine for antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. HIV Clin Trials. 2005 Nov-Dec;6(6):344-50.
22.) Osio M, Muscia F, Zampini L, Nascimbene C, Mailland E, Cargnel A, Mariani C. Acetyl-l-carnitine in the treatment of painful antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus patients: an open label study. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2006 Mar;11(1):72-6.
23.) Pisano C, Pratesi G, Laccabue D, Zunino F, Lo Giudice P, Bellucci A, Pacifici L, Camerini B, Vesci L, Castorina M, Cicuzza S, Tredici G, Marmiroli P, Nicolini G, Galbiati S, Calvani M, Carminati P, Cavaletti G. Paclitaxel and Cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity: a protective role of acetyl-L-carnitine. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Nov 15;9(15):5756-67.
24.) Youle M. Acetyl-L-carnitine in HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy.CNS Drugs. 2007;21 Suppl 1:25-30; discussion 45-6.
25.) Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Cristaldi E, Vacante M, Risino C, Cammalleri L, Pennisi G, Rampello L. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Nov;53(11):3018-25. Epub 2008 Mar 21.
26.) Malaguarnera M, Pistone G, Astuto M, Vecchio I, Raffaele R, Lo Giudice E, Rampello L. Effects of L-acetylcarnitine on cirrhotic patients with hepatic coma: randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Dec;51(12):2242-7. Epub 2006 Nov 1.
27.) Mingrone G.Carnitine in type 2 diabetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Nov;1033:99-107.
28.) Rosca MG, Lemieux H, Hoppel CL. Mitochondria in the elderly: Is acetylcarnitine a rejuvenator? Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009 Nov 30;61(14):1332-42. Epub 2009 Aug
29.) Calabrese V, Giuffrida Stella AM, Calvani M, Butterfield DA.Acetylcarnitine and cellular stress response: roles in nutritional redox homeostasis and regulation of longevity genes. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Feb;17(2):73-88. Epub 2005 Oct 18.
30.) Liu J, Killilea DW, Ames BN. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L- carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):1876-81.
31.) Balercia G, Regoli F, Armeni T, Koverech A, Mantero F, Boscaro M., Placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial on the use of L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, or combined L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2005 Sep;84(3):662-71.
” The administration of LC and LAC is effective in increasing sperm kinetic features in patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospemia and improves the total oxyradical scavenging capacity of the seminal fluid in the same population.”
32.) Li Z, Chen GW, Shang XJ, Bai WJ, Han YF, Chen B, Teng XM, Meng FH, Zhang B, Chen DN, Liu JH, Zheng XM, Cao XR, Liu Y, Zhu XB, Wang YX., [A controlled randomized trial of the use of combined L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in men with oligoasthenozoospermia]. [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2005 Oct;11(10):761-4.
“Combined treatment with L-carnitine and acetyl-L-calmitine can be an effective and safe option for treating oligoasthenozoospermia by means of significantly improving forward motile sperm and total motile sperm per ejaculation, as well as increasing pregnant rates.”
33.) Agarwal A, Said TM., Carnitines and male infertility. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004 Apr;8(4):376-84.
“L-Carnitine (LC) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) are highly concentrated in the epididymis and play a crucial role in sperm metabolism and maturation. They are related to sperm motility and have antioxidant properties. The objective of this review is to summarize the multiple roles played by LC and ALC in male reproduction, and to highlight their limitations as well as their benefits in the treatment of male infertility. A variety of studies support the conclusion that LC and/or ALC at total daily amounts of at least 3 g per day can significantly improve both sperm concentration and total sperm counts among men with astheno- or oligoasthenozoospermia.”