An Amazing Brain Health Nutrient
Cognizin – CDP-Choline – Cytidine 5′-diphosphate choline
This little-known substance – a member of the vitamin B family -may just be one of the most important supplements for brain health that we know about.
- Citicoline is essential to the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine which is a major constituent of brain tissue.
- Citicoline helps to maintain normal levels of acetylcholine, an important brain chemical that regulates memory and cognitive function.
- Citicoline supports and enhances brain metabolism and healthy brain activity by sustaining the health of mitochondria – the energy generators inside the brain cells.
- Citicoline helps brain cells communicate by keeping cell membranes in good condition and protecting neural structures from free radical damage.
Citicoline- Product #N401 – 60 capsules 250 mg per capsule – $35.97
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Clinical and laboratory research show citicoline supports memory function and healthy cognition and there is clinical evidence suggesting that citicoline can improve memory problems associated with aging. (3, 4)
A double-blind, placebo controlled study found that citicoline improved cognitive performance in Alzheimer’s patients. High-tech imaging showed that it also improved cerebral (brain) blood flow in this group of Alzheimer’s patients. According to the researchers: ” … citicoline (1,000 mg/day) is well tolerated and improves cognitive performance, cerebral blood perfusion and the brain bioelectrical activity pattern in AD [Alzheimer’s Disease] patients.” (14)
Citicoline is being studied and found to be very useful in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, allowing significantly reduced doses of levodopa to be used to greater effect.(5) Citicoline enhances brain and nerve cell communication by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters, including dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine.
Our eyes can benefit from citicoline: it improves visual function in patients with glaucoma, amblyopia (lazy eye), and optic neuropathy. (6, 7)
Given the powerful effect citicoline has on brain chemistry and health it is no surprise that scientists and researchers are exploring other uses for this supplement. Cocaine addicts found their cravings were reduced and mood improved with the use of citicoline. (8)
Researchers are finding that citicoline has positive effects on the parts of the brain that tell us that we are satisfied and can stop eating – the so-called satiety centers of our brain. High-tech imaging showed that subjects using high dose citicoline (2000mg per day) had much greater responses in the areas of the brain related to satiety and they further reported significant reductions in appetite and hunger. (9)
Those suffering from depression and even schizophrenia may benefit from citicoline according to two different small but impressive studies. Both studies showed positive improvements occurring within a few weeks of beginning treatment with citicoline. (10, 11)
And it’s not just brain function, or eye health – citicoline has been investigated and found helpful in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (12)
Citicoline is considered to be a very safe nutritional supplement at even large doses (over 2000 mg per day) with side effects usually consisting of mild and transient gastrointestinal upset.
Dosage and useage: Research into citicoline for neurological improvement usually uses doses of from 1000 mg to 2000 mg per day. Citicoline can be taken with meals or by itself.
Serving Size 1 vegetarian capsule
Servings Per Container 60
Amount Per Serving
CDP-Choline (Cytidine 5′-diphosphate choline†)
Other ingredients: rice flour, vegetable cellulose (capsule), ascorbyl palmitate, silica.
† Elemental Choline 51.25 mg per capsule
Cognizin® is a registered trademark of Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd.
1.) Citicoline (Cognizin) in the treatment of cognitive impairment. Fioravanti M., Buckley A.E. Clin Interv Aging. Sep 2006; 1(3): 247–251. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2695184/
2.) Warach, S; Pettigrew, LC; Dashe, JF; Pullicino, P; Lefkowitz, DM; Sabounjian, L; Harnett, K; Schwiderski, U; Gammans, R (November 2000). “Effect of citicoline on ischemic lesions as measured by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Citicoline 010 Investigators.”. Annals of neurology 48 (5): 713–22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11079534
3.) Spiers PA et al. Citicoline improves verbal memory in aging. Arch Neurol. 996;53:441-48.
4.) Alvarez XA et al. Citicoline improves memory performance in elderly subjects. Meth Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1997;19(3):201-10.
5.) Citicoline in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Eberhardt R1, Birbamer G, Gerstenbrand F, Rainer E, Traegner H. Clin Ther. 1990 Nov-Dec;12(6):489-95.
It is concluded that the levodopa-saving effect of citicoline could be used to decrease the incidence of side effects and retard the loss of efficacy of levodopa in long-term treatment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2289218
6.) Parisi, V; Coppola, G; Centofanti, M; Oddone, F; Angrisani, AM; Ziccardi, L; Ricci, B; Quaranta, L; Manni, G (2008). “Evidence of the neuroprotective role of citicoline in glaucoma patients.”. Progress in brain research 173: 541–4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18929133
7.) Parisi, V.; Coppola, G.; Ziccardi, L.; Gallinaro, G.; Falsini, B. (1 May 2008). “Cytidine-5′-diphosphocholine (Citicoline): a pilot study in patients with non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy”. European Journal of Neurology 15 (5): 465–474. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02099.x/abstract;jsessionid=FA96263B2BE6D0726B206E970BF6AF45.f03t01
8.) Renshaw PF1, Daniels S, Lundahl LH, Rogers V, Lukas SE.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Feb;142(2):132-8. Short-term treatment with citicoline (CDP-choline) attenuates some measures of craving in cocaine-dependent subjects: a preliminary report. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10102764
9.) William D. S. Killgore, Amy J. Ross, […], and Deborah A. Yurgelun-Todd. Citicoline Affects Appetite and Cortico-Limbic Responses to Images of High Calorie Foods. Int J Eat Disord. Jan 2010; 43(1): 6–13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3378241/#!po=4.16667
10.) Salvadorini F, Galeone F, Nicotera M, Ombrato M, Saba P. Clinical evaluation of CDP-choline (Nicholin): efficacy As antidepressant treatment. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1975 Sep;18(3):513-20.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/810312
11.) Deutsch SI, Schwartz BL, Schooler NR, et al. First administration of cytidine diphosphocholine and galantamine in schizophrenia: a sustained alpha7 nicotinic agonist strategy. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2008;31(1):34-39.
12.) Guerrerio AL, et al.Choline intake in a large cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr;95(4):892-900. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3302364/
13.) Secades JJ1, Lorenzo JL.. Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2006 update. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;28 Suppl B:1-56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17171187
14.) Alvarez XA, Mouzo R, Pichel V, Pérez P, Laredo M, Fernández-Novoa L, Corzo L, Zas R, Alcaraz M, Secades JJ, Lozano R, Cacabelos R., Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Nov;21(9):633-44. Double-blind placebo-controlled study with citicoline in APOE genotyped Alzheimer’s disease patients. Effects on cognitive performance, brain bioelectrical activity and cerebral perfusion. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10669911